What is Put-call Ratio? Definition of Put-call Ratio, Put-call Ratio Meaning

Puts are only being covered, and the markets will collapse once the covering is complete if the PCR declines with an increase in IV. Get information about allocation, delivery, stock position, warehouse service providers and list of clearing banks. It’s our great pleasure to introduce Vijay Bhambwani to our readers – we consider Vijay to be India’s best trader. Did you know, when you ask for buy or sell advice, you are faced with three outcomes?

Example, if 100 calls and 100 puts were traded today in the Nifty, the put/call ratio is 1.00. If 200 puts have traded and 100 calls have traded, the put/call ratio is 2.00. Bloomberg | Quint is a multiplatform, Indian business and financial news company. Stock brokers can accept securities as margins from clients difference between cash credit and bank overdraft only by way of pledge in the depository system w.e.f September 01, 2020. Any decrease in the put-call ratio will go to the phase of extreme testing of market resistance levels. Underwriters in this vital stock component establish press positions with perennial Expectations of subsequent market corrections.

Hence, the put call ratio that is essentially a contrarian sentiment indicator pays off while assessing market sentiment. It indicates that if traders move against the “normal” options trading crowd, they may just come out winning in the markets. This is, afterall, due to the fact that, historically, the options trading crowd is prone to be wrong in most trades.

put to call ratio

While trading with the NIFTY, PCR ratio today can easily tell traders in which direction markets are moving. There are many signals and indicators high-lighting that stock market might be overbought. As most of my readers know, I am not a big fan of Indicators but Market sentiment is something we can’t ignore and we must pay attention to sentiment indicators which have good probability of anticipating future market directions. The chance that the market will perceive a substantial price event in the future of the security increases with the put-call ratio’s distance from parity.

Market Details

Similary, Call Buyers could be bearish investors deploying complex trading strategies. In financial terminology, a put-call ratio defines the rallying viewpoints of individual investors and gives a sneak peek into ongoing and future trends of the stock market. The put-call ratio depicts the dynamic balance between the put option and the purchase call options at any specific time. Calculation of the put-call ratio depends on the volatility and stability of the individual stock indices.

While calls are not used so much for insurance purposes, they are bought as a directional bet on rising prices. Put volume increases when the expectations for a decline increase. Conversely, call volume increases when the expectations for an advance https://1investing.in/ increase. Sentiment reaches extremes when the Put/Call Ratio moves to relatively high or low levels. A Put/Call Ratio at its lower extremities would show excessive bullishness because call volume would be significantly higher than put volume.


It means, either call writers are aggressively writing at every rise or Put writers are closing there positions cutting losses. Look for retracement percentage of last fall during correction while keeping an eye on this chart. If the PCR is increasing during correction in the up trending market – this is very bullish indication. Look for retracement percentage of last rise during correction while keeping an eye on this chart. For intraday trading – live PCR trend can be extremely reliable indicator.

A reading of 1.0 or more is very bullish as most people think the market is going down. When the majority thinks the market is going to move a certain direction, it usually does the opposite. A PCR of more than one indicates that traders are purchasing more put options than call options and signals a bearish trend going forward. For instance, a very high PCR signals an extreme bearish market sentiment.

The trend of PCR over a period of time is a more reliable indicator rather than PCR at a point in time. Call Volume – is the total number of call options initiated in the same time period. Put Volume – is the total number of put options initiated over a given time period. The strike price is the price at which the buyer and seller decide to buy/sell the asset at a particular price. The put option gives the buyer the right to sell the underlying asset at a particular price.

put to call ratio

Puts generally imply a bearish outlook and so when they are getting traded more than Call contracts a general impression of bearishness overwhelming bullishness is created. Traders and investors track the Put-Call Ratio to get a rough sense of the upcoming trend in the underlying stock or index. As a result, there are more bearish traders in the market, while bullish traders remain on the sidelines. Bullish traders may be anticipating what will happen before a significant event. A rising put-call ratio indicates that equities traders are purchasing more puts than calls.

But if traders are buying more calls, it indicates a bullish market sentiment. Moreover, PCR can be used to calculate indices, stocks, or derivative segments as a whole. Everyone knows that traders in options markets, especially those who buy options, are not known for their success rates. It wouldn’t be wrong to say that such buyers of options lose at trading almost 90% of the while in trading. Therefore, to some traders, it makes perfect sense to trade in a way that is contrary to such options trades. If traders have such a bleak record, they must be doing something wrong, right?

From a greater viewpoint, it is a significant signal for directional price fluctuations. Trading is predicated on what the majority of strike prices imply . Traders can understand whether an increase or decrease in the market is excessive or not.

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The Put-Call Ratio is simply the number of Put trades divided by the number of Call trades. The percentage of open interest or trading volumes for put and call options during a specified period is known as the put-call ratio. A ratio greater than one indicates hedging emotion, less than one suggests speculative emotion, and equal to one indicates neutral feeling. For F&O traders, the Put Call Ratio is a frequently utilised measure. It is most important to learn how to calculate the put-call ratio for stocks. In the context of Indian markets, Nifty is a widely traded option and as the benchmark index, the PCR will define the market trend.

By the time all stops are taken out the market participants turn bullish and want to remain on the long side of the market. Once everyone has bought then there is no one left to buy and the market starts to drift lower. PCR aids traders to understand the direction of the price movement of underlying securities. A PCR above 1 indicates that put volume has exceeded the call volume. It must be noted that the put options prove useful for hedging market weaknesses or helping traders to take chances on the market decline.

  • Get latest future and spot quotes access to advance charting tools, heatmaps and important reports.
  • Instead of using the PCR in isolation, it should be used in combination with other market indicators while making buy/sell/hold decisions.
  • In financial terminology, a put-call ratio defines the rallying viewpoints of individual investors and gives a sneak peek into ongoing and future trends of the stock market.
  • It is an important and useful indicator to understand the market as 80% volumes of the NSE F&O segment is contributed by Option trading.
  • National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited is a nation-level, technology driven on-line recognised stock exchange with an independent Board of Directors and professional management.

One way to calculate PCR is by dividing the number of open interest in a Put contract by the number of open interest in Call option at the same strike price and expiry date on any given day. An option is a contract that offers the option-buyer a right, but not an obligation to buy or sell the underlying asset. One can either buy or sell the asset at a predetermined price known as the strike price on a predetermined date which is known as the expiry date, after which the option will no longer be valid. The Put-Call Ratio, or the PCR, which is a metric widely deployed by investors to assess the sentiment which is driving the market and is used to predict whether the current trajectory is heading towards a bull-run or a bear-run. If the PCR rises as the IV falls, it means that put activity is rising while the perception of risk is decreasing. A declining put-call ratio, especially anything less than 0.7 and nearing 0.5.

Put Call Ratio – FAQs

Open interest and trade volume are two approaches used to compute the ratio. As per conventional definition, a PCR ratio below 1 suggests that traders are buying more Call options than Put options. It signals that most market participants are betting on a likely bullish trend going forward. On the other hand, when the ratio falls to a very low level, it is deemed excessively bullish and suggests a market top is in the making. PCR is a contrarian indicator that helps traders not get caught in the herd of the market movement.

Put/Call ratio is a popular derivative indicator, specifically designed to help traders gauge the overall sentiment of the market. The ratio is calculated either on the basis of options trading volumes or on the basis of the open interest for a particular period. If the ratio is more than 1, it means that more puts have been traded during the day and if it is less than 1 it means more calls have been traded. The PCR can be calculated for the option segment as a whole which includes individual stocks as well as indices.

In the current context, Nifty 50 is in Structural Bull Market over long-term, we may witness a short-term decline or selloff due to Overvalued Market conditions but that also depends on 2018 Budget. (These factors won’t have much Impact on structural bull market.) So keep an eye on Price action of Nifty 50, Bank nifty and take trades accordingly. According to the recent updates, the put-call ratio is somewhere near 1.50. This has made some institutional investors cautious about the market conditions. In other words they’re worried about higher valuations leading to some correction.

The put-call ratio is a unique financial method that analyses options trading volumes to determine the mood of the market. A contrarian indicator indicates that the expert views things differently from the general view. For example, the market will rise if multiple financial advising companies make critical statements. Therefore, a contrarian indicator may be developed by monitoring the opinions of financial advisory services and taking opposite action when they reach a strong majority opinion.

A futures contract is a legally binding agreement to buy or sell the underlying security in the future. Do not trade in “Options” based on recommendations from unauthorised / unregistered investment advisors and influencers. In view of this, we advise you to exercise due caution and verify the authenticity of any investment tips offering incredible potential for making profit. Wealth creation is a long-term process that needs time and patience, and requires the investor to be vigilant all the time.

Example of Put-Call Ratio

Put Call Ratio is a derivative ratio used by traders to gauge the overall mood of the market. Put call ratio can be defined as the total number of outstandingput optionsdivided by the total number of outstandingcall optionsIn that same period. One of the best ways to calculate PCR is by dividing the total number of open interest in a Put contract by the total number of open interest in Call option at the same strike price and expiry date on any given day. However, one can also calculate the same by dividing put trading volume by call trading volume on a particular day. It is essentially a contrarian indicator; as a result, it helps traders to escape the herd mentality when it comes to investing in a given market.

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